A relatively quiet year that was both slightly warmer and wetter than average.
A relatively quiet year that was both slightly warmer and wetter than average.
Whilst the year got off to a mild start, particularly February and March, with all of the first six months being warmer than average, there then followed a gradual cooling off during the second half, albeit significantly disrupted by a very mild October.
As for rainfall, most locations within Cumbria, with a few exceptions, were slightly wetter than average, but within 10% of normal. Upto June the year was running drier than average, then followed a wet summer and start of autumn, before the final three months returned closer to average. Whilst June was the wettest month at many sites, at others it varied between March and October and flooding during 2017 was mainly limited to a more localised level on the 22nd November.
Yet whilst Cumbria was generally wetter than average, here at Maulds Meaburn it was the third driest of the ten now recorded and only marginally wetter than 2016 - although this fact applies at other local sites.
And whilst the year's weather was uneventful, the two notable facts in contradiction of 2017 seeing the provisional UK mean temperature of 9.6°C, at 0.7°c above the 1981-2010 long-term average, ranking as the fifth warmest year in the historical UK series since 1910, are:
(1) it was only the 16th warmest at Newton Rigg in a series back to 1957 and
(2) the lack of a warm spell - here at Maulds Meaburn only 18 days attained 20°c (just 12 in the summer and none after 22nd August).
The best of any decent summer weather fell during 24-26th May and 17-19th June, a brief lull duing the year's wettest month and even the years warmest day at Maulds Meaburn (21st June) wasn't great as it started with thunder and was uncomfortably sultry for most of the day.
Yes, the summer was poor, but this had followed a spring that had been quite decent and there was certainly a lack of snow and cold weather during the winter and yet to believe the Met' Office, away from the coastal fringes, the total amount of sunshine in Cumbria was marginally above average!
Locally all sites were warmer than average during 2017, ranging from 0.3°c at Newton Rigg to 0.7°c at Keswick (marginally ahead of Shap) and which for at least the fourth year in succession was once again just that little bit more above average than everywhere else - 2017 was generally the warmest year since 2014.
With a mean temperature of 8.90°c (mean minimum of 5.3°c and mean maximum of 12.5°c) at Newton Rigg, 2017 becomes the 16th warmest (of 61) in a complete series back to 1957. That 8.90°c being 0.3°c above the 1981-2010 mean.
Staying at Newton Rigg, seven months were warmer than average during the year with five being colder - this included the first six months of the year (and then Oct') all being warmer than average, with a gradual, but marginal cooling thereafter. This obviously means that the break from warmer to colder months came in the middle of the summer!
Several of those warmer than average months were notably well above average, certainly in excess by at least 1.0°c and included: Feb', March, May and October, with the latter showing the largest departure from the norm' by 1.6°c. In terms of the colder than average months, both August and November were the coolest, but neither managed to exceed the 1.0°c departure.
At the Met' office site at Shap 76 air frosts were recorded during 2017, its average being 74.5 and which had an annual mean temperature of 8.46°c.
Here at Maulds Meaburn a mean temperature of 9.14 °c (mean minimum of 5.51°c and maximum of 12.76°c) was some 0.46°c above the average for my short period of records for (2009-2016), but which is very much in keeping with the picture throughout Cumbria.
The highest and lowest temperatures recorded at a standard site during 2017 were: a maximum of 27.9°c (26th May at both Levens and Drumburgh) and a minimum of -11.2°c (11th December at Shap).
Here at Maulds Meaburn it was: 26.2°c (79.1°f) 21st June and -9.5°c (14.9°f) on the 11th December.
A cold spell in December saw the the lowest temperatures since Christmas Day 2010, that -11.2°c at Shap and then also the first 'Ice Day' since March 2013. A maximum temperature of -0.9°c (30.4°f) made Maulds Meaburn one of the coldest sites in the UK that day, beaten only by a few other sites, all in Cumbria, Brampton (-1.0°c - recorded on both 10-11th) with Drumburgh the coldest that day with -1.5°c **.
** The lowest maximum temperature recorded during 2017 was -2.0°c, recorded twice during December - South Stainmore on the 8th and Spadeadam on the 10th.
A selection of monthly mean temperatures is shown below:
2017 was the wettest year since 2015 with annual rainfall totals tending to be in the vicinity of 110% of normal, but which fell below average at sites such as Shap (94.5%), but rose as high as 125.8% at Seathwaite.
At Newton Rigg the rainfall record commenced in 1900 (3yrs data is incomplete) and average rainfall for 1900-2016 was 927.1 mm. The final total of 980.5 mm (103.5%) makes 2017 the 42nd wettest year in the Newton Rigg record.
To demonstrate the vagaries of Cumbrian rainfall, at Seathwaite it was the fourth wettest year in a record back to 1961 with the three wetter years all coming since 2009 - yet at Newton Rigg in the same timescale, 2017 was only the 23rd wettest year!
During the year seven months were drier than average and five were wetter - the seven that were drier being: January, February, April, May, Oct', Nov' and Dec'. But again to show the vagaries, at Shap it was slightly different: February had average rainfall, August was drier than average, whilst October was wetter.
Seasonal rainfall saw the biggest departures from the average coming in the winter and summer - the winter being well below the average and the summer, well above. Summer averages varied from 112.4% at Haresceugh Castle upto 177.1% (266.6 mm) at, of all places, Kirkby Thore.
During the spring and autumn rainfall was broadly very close to average, just very fractionally above average.
Here at Maulds Meaburn there was neither drought nor wet spell throughout the year.
A selection of local rainfall totals from various standard sites is shown below:
**Data kindly provided by the Hydrometry and Telemetry team of the Environment Agency (Penrith).
In an even longer series of 161 years, back to 1857, rainfall of 909.2 mm at Appleby makes 2017 the 77th wettest year in that time and Appleby slightly bucks the local position in that it was the driest year since 2010.
Since 1857 average annual rainfall in Appleby is 893.1 mm (1981-2010 average of 892.5 mm) and the 2017 total represents 101.8% of average.
Rainfall at Maulds Meaburn was 1096.7 mm (43.18 inch) with rain recorded on 226 days (9 more than average) of which 165 were 'wet days' (days of 1.0 mm=>).
This makes 2017 the third driest in my ten complete years of records and to demonstrate the relative wetness of the past decade, Appleby's rainfall for 2017 would only be 88% of average in the same period for which there is a record at Maulds Meaburn.
An inch or more of rain falling within 24hrs was recorded on four days, two of them falling in June, which also had the year's wettest day, 55.4 mm on the 28th and which is 5.05% of the annual total.
For the first time in my records 50 mm or more of rain was recorded on two separate days with 54.5 mm falling on the 22nd November (that is 50 mm due to completely different rainfall events - The 'Desmond' event of 2015 saw 50mm+ on consecutive days, but was all part of the same weather system). This curiously means that 10% of the year's total rainfall actually fell on just two days.
This is the third full year that I have had a rain gauge in Crosby Ravensworth (CR), just 0.7 miles from my own gauge in Maulds Meaburn (MM) and the monthly differences between the two are still generally quite small. This year again saw MM wetter in just the one month, but this time it was April (and very marginal at that, just 0.2 mm more), but which follows the trends of the previous years in that MM is wetter in the year's driest month and/or when the dominant winds were not from the SW. In the two previous years June had seen the MM gauge record slightly more each time, but despite June being the year's wettest month and with SSW'ly winds, the margin was still very narrow (2.8 mm more at CR) in comparison to other wet months - a slight curiosity at this stage.
The annual total of 1208.1 mm (47.56") at CR is 110.2% of that at MM and once again compares quite favourably to the two previous years (114.2% in 2015 - 110% in 2016) which is beginning to show that in a relatively dry year we can expect CR to have 10% more rainfall than MM.
This is the second year of a gauge at CastleHowe Scar (between CR and Shap) and the final total of 1447.5 mm shows a fine correlation to that at MM and CR as the rainfall increases towards Shap.
January was a relatively dry month and slightly warmer than average, it was also a quiet month.
High pressure was dominant during January, albeit we often sat on the fringes of such systems as opposed to it being directly overhead, but it was the main influence on our weather during the month and hence the reason why it was so uneventful and that much drier than average.
Whilst the month was marginally warmer than average we still had an average number of frosts, albeit apart from a brief spell during the 12-13th, there was a distinct lack of anything wintry. With high pressure dominant, rainfall was very much of the 'bits 'n' pieces' variety with no particularly wet days, apart from the 31st, yet especially towards the end of the month drizzle became fairly regular.
It was the driest January since 2010 with rainfall percentages typically below 50% of normal.
February was the warmest yet recorded at this site - unduly mild and until the end of the month, relatively dry, before turning unsettled.
A notably mild month with very few frosts and barely anything of a wintry flavour. Low pressure was the more frequent visitor during the month, but without ever becoming truly dominant until late in the month when 'Storm Doris' hit the UK, although the main impacts of that storm where felt south of Cumbria. The 8-12th saw a brief cold snap when pressure was at its highest, but it was quite brief and not at all notable.
Rainfall, whilst being a frequent visitor, was generally light and inconsequential upto the 21st, but a run of wet days during the 22nd-26th brought the month's total to something approaching average, typically just above normal, but within the Lake District just over 130% of average.
Winter on the whole, quiet, dry and mild - overall not too bad.
However, if you like something that does resemble winter, then it was a write off. Snow fell on just nine days and only lay on the ground on one - the lowest frequency in my records.
In what was a dry winter, Maulds Meaburn recorded just 215.6 mm of rain (Crosby Ravensworth 244.9 mm) and at Newton Rigg the total was 181.6 mm, just 64.7 % of average and the 22nd driest in a series back to 1900-01.
March - Mild, changeable and much wetter than average - there were very few frosts, yet snow on the 22nd gave a 3cm cover to equal the latest date on which a 'Day of Laying Snow' has been recorded at this site. On this day snow lay to a depth of 9 cms at Shap, the deepest at any Cumbrian site during 2017.
March continued the awfully mild start to the year, especially so by night and thus frosts were quite rare. Whilst rainfall was frequent it was never that heavy (albeit at times it did fall heavily in the Lake District), but the month ended with the total well above average.
During the 17-19th Seathwaite recorded 235.6 mm of which 109.0 mm fell on the 17th. There was a gloriously sunny period during 23rd-27th before the month closed on an unsettled note.
At Newton Rigg it was the wettest March since 1994 and in a series back to 1900 only eight have been wetter.
Confirming its position as the driest month April was very dry and sunny, although the temperature finished close to average.
Rainfall was typically just under one third of average, but as low as 17.3% at Brothers Water and Levens in the south of the county recorded just 12.8 mm. However, despite the dryness of the month, at Newton Rigg it was only the 19th driest in a series back to 1900.
After a cool end to the month, the mean temperature fell back to near normal, but for the majority of the month night-time minima had kept the temperature above average. Day-time maximums were at or just below average and indeed many of the days felt quite fresh with winds from the W-NW. That cool end to the month saw a little snow and hail 24-25th with some frosts, but otherwise it was a quiet month.
Winds were anomalously from the NW and it was often breezy, giving that slightly fresher feel, although this was generally off-set by the brighter conditions and lack of any meaningful rainfall. Only two days attained 15°c, none after the 8th, with temperatures typically stuck in the range of 11-13°c.
& Locally, rainfall percentages were also well below average and typically one third or less of normal - at Seathwaite it was the driest since 1980 and the 4th driest since 1961.
May - Warm, dry and sunny - and recorded the warmest day in Cumbria during 2017.
The dry start to 2017 continued in May, which was anticyclonic upto the 11th, resulting in settled and dry conditions with numerous fine and sunny days, albeit a little fresh with winds from an easterly quarter. It became unsettled mid-month followed by a notable hot spell 24-27th with three days attaining 25°c. The hot spell ended with thunder on the 27th, the month then ending somewhat mixed.
The beginning of the month whilst enjoying many decent days, especially 3rd - 5th, was plagued by stiff easterly winds that kept a lid on the temperature and many nights saw a ground frost. During this period a temperature of -5.1°c at Shap on the 9th was the lowest in the UK during the month. After the 11th frost was no longer a problem with night-time minima unduly high, especially from the 24th, although it wasn't until the 22nd that day-time maximums showed a more noticeable upward trend, peaking during the 25-27th.
Locally, rainfall percentages showed a large disparity. Within the Lake District they were typically above average (123.8% at Brothers Water), but which was solely due to an exceptionally wet day on the 15th, but outside of the Lakes the averages fell well below the norm', down to 53.1% at Haresceugh Castle (Kirkoswald). That very wet day on the 15th saw 167.8 mm of rain recorded at Ennerdale.
The driest since 2010 and at Newton Rigg whilst rainfall was actually marginally above average (101.6 %), it was 0.9°c warmer than average and since 1956 only five have been warmer.
June - Wettest yet recorded (at Maulds Meaburn) - there were two very wet days and despite being warmer than average with a decent warm and dry period 13th-21st, overall a disappointing month.
If you had put your wellies away for the summer you were probably dusting them off at the start of the month and certainly would have been doing so at the month's end - yes, June was wet and either side of a fairly decent period mid month, rain was a frequent companion. Two of the four days to record in excess of an inch of rain fell in June.
Features of the month were two very wet days, 5th and especially the 28th which would become the year's wettest day at Maulds Meaburn and also the sixth wettest day in my records with 55.4 mm.
The nights were very mild, many of which were into double figures and hence the mean minimum temperature for the month was significantly above average. Indeed it was solely down to the mildness of the nights that the month ended warmer than average.
Additionally and finally, the month ended somewhat chilly - were you one of those who turned the heating back on?
The 5th with 37.8 mm was a grim day and then the 28th saw steady rain from mid-afternoon lasting through to the following morning to notch up over 2 inches in a day!
Locally, rainfall percentages were at least 150% of normal, more typically 175% and at a number of sites went well above 200% - which without any thundery activity are quite marked. Kirkby Thore at a whopping 276.3% of average totally belied its reputation for being the driest location in the county.
At Newton Rigg, 124.2 mm (212%) made it the wettest since 2012 and in a series back to 1900 there has been 111 drier and only six wetter.
One other curiosity of June is that prior to this year the 3rd was (after 10 yrs of records) the year's driest day, having never had more than 0.2 mm - a fine and sunny day maintains that record. Also the 13/14/15th had never recorded 20°c in my 8 yrs of records, the only days in June that have failed to do so - now it is just the 13th and 15th.
This is when the run of colder than average months started and whilst summer had already started on a wet note in June, now July was also wet and colder than average with a lack of any warm spell - it was a disappointing month.
After the first half of the year had seen every month being warmer than average, that run was finally broken in July. To make things worse, it was also wet. Rain was frequent, especially in the second half, when it became increasingly unsettled (coinciding with the start of the school summer holidays) and you could have been excused for wondering if summer was ever going to arrive - it didn't as August made sure of that!
The first half of the month wasn't actually that wet (24.5 mm upto the 18th), although there was some rain on most days. Even though low pressure tended to dominate, there were transitional days of high pressure, but after a brief, dry, sunny and warmer spell 16-18th, when high pressure did assert itself over the UK, the month became increasingly unsettled and the rain heavier, which at the month's end fell in the form of showers. As with the start of the month, it was also much cooler at the end of the month.
Whilst both the mean minimum and maximum temperatures were below average, it was the maximum that showed the greater departure from the norm' and only five days attained 20°c (four reaching 70°f) - and the usual culprit of the Jet Stream was to blame, creating the more mobile westerly conditions.
Thunder was heard on one day, 19th, at the breakdown of the 'warm spell' and a 'day of fog' was recorded once, 22nd, when very heavy rain in the morning was quite grim and reduced the visibility significantly.
There was to be no decent end to the summer at all and if anything in August it only got worse!
August really was a very poor month and had a complete lack of any warmth with only one day attaining 20°c! However, it was only marginally colder than average with rainfall close to average.
The final figures for August may show that it was only marginally colder than average and with rainfall near to average, but the reality was much grimmer, best demonstrated by one simple fact: only one day in the month actually managed to attain 20°c (22.2°c on the 22nd) - there wasn't even two good days to rub together!
The mean maximum temperature was therefore down on average and if it hadn't been for a run of very mild nights from the 22nd, the final mean temperature would have been much worse and indeed those eight mild nights (22nd-29th) managed to push the mean minimum temperature slightly above average.
The majority of the month's rain fell before the 20th when it then became light and patchy, but there would be no recovery to better weather and indeed the close of the month saw a return to cooler conditions.
Thunder was heard on one day, 31st, but without any storm to accompany it and otherwise it was a quiet month.
Rainfall of 68.7 mm made it the driest August since 2010 (2 having been drier and 8 having been wetter of the 11 now recorded) and was 60.7% of average for 2007-16.
Locally, rainfall percentages were generally just either side of average, the east of the county tending to fall just below average, but with the Lake District seeing above average rainfall.
At the Met' Office site at Newton Rigg, 85.4 mm (121.8%) made it the driest August since 2013 and in a series back to 1900 there has been 68 drier and 48 wetter (1yr of missing data). In a series back to 1951 a mean temperature of 13.85°c is the coldest since 2014 with 23 having been colder and 43 warmer.
Here at Maulds Meaburn, summer 2017 with 332.2 mm of rain (Crosby Ravensworth 348.8 mm) was the wettest since 2012 and of the eleven now recorded, seven have been drier and three have been wetter.
A mean temperature of 14.16°c is the coldest since 2015 and of the nine summers now recorded, four have been warmer and four colder.
But the somewhat depressing fact about the summer was that only twelve days during the three months of summer attained 20°c, with just ten managing the old standard of 70°f (21.1°c).
At Newton Rigg rainfall totalled 303.6 mm and had a mean temperature of 13.9°c. In comparison to the 1981-2010 averages this represented 152.6% of summer rainfall and it was 0.3°c colder than average.
In a series back to 1900 (3 years of incomplete data), this was the 12th wettest and in a complete series back to 1957, 30 have been warmer, 28 have been colder, with 2 having the same mean temperature.
The run of poor months continued in September which was the wettest yet recorded at Maulds Meaburn - it was also colder than average.
Rain fell frequently, sunshine was limited and consequently there was no warmth during the month; indeed this is the first September in my Maulds Meaburn records which has failed to attain 20°c - and whilst not unusual for September, we also had the ground frost of the season.
Like August, it was the mean maximum temperature that showed the greater departure from the norm', being 1°c below average and with the month opening with two fairly decent and sunny days, it really was downhill from there on in!
There was a fairly constant stream of low pressure systems arriving from off the Atlantic, especially during the 4-13th, which resulted in the month's average rainfall having fallen by the 15th. Rainfall remained frequent, but not especially heavy thereafter, until the end of the month which ended wet and the ground reaching saturation.
The middle of the month became cooler under a NW'ly flow as we sat to the east of high pressure in the Atlantic and during which that ground frost was recorded. As the month then reverted back to type (unsettled), temperatures recovered slightly under the influence of a southerly flow, but without the sunshine to accompany it.
In what was a fairly subdued month, there were no days of thunder, fog, gales, etc.
Locally, rainfall percentages were well above average, particularly across the Lake District, but also in the east of the county.
At Newton Rigg, 114.8 mm (150.5%) made it the wettest September since 2000 and in a series back to 1900 September has been drier in 101 years and wetter in 14 years (2yrs of missing data). A mean temperature of 11.75°c is the coldest since 2015 and in a series back to 1951, 18 have been colder, 45 have been warmer and 3 have had the same mean temperature.
October was very mild with average rainfall and daytime temperatures were consistently above average.
With October mainly under the influence of a warm and moist south-westerly airflow it was unsurprisingly a very mild month, particularly so by day, the highest recorded being 18.9°c (16th). However, it was often cloudy and fairly uninspiring and whilst rainfall was virtually 'bang on' the average, in October that is still in excess of 100 mm (4 inches).
Those frequently high daytime temperatures peaked on the 16th with the passage of ex-tropical hurricane Ophelia which brought a brief period of gale force winds.
At the month's end a northerly airflow brought a sudden dip in temperature and with it the first air frost of the season.
In what was a generally quiet month, there was one day of fog (27th) and the one day with a gale (16th).
MSLP of 1013.1 Mb was +2.2 Mb above the local average for October and this is despite the month often being unsettled and with low pressure systems being a regular feature. High pressure from the 25th through to the month's end brought the quietest spell of weather during the month and which caused the 'bar' to finish above average.
Locally, rainfall percentages were generally very close to average, but within the Lake District they rose well above normal, reaching 176.7% at Seathwaite Farm. Seathwaite was excessively wet during the five days of 9-13th, totalling 284.6 mm, with 119.4 mm of that falling on the 9th.
At Newton Rigg a mean temperature of 10.75°c was the warmest since 2013 and in a series back to 1951, 54 have been colder and 12 have been warmer.
The only notable flooding during 2017 occurred in November with one notably wet day, but the month actually finished drier and colder than average.
The month was fairly benign upto the 19th, during which time there had been little rain, some cool nights, but with day-time temperatures above average and a reasonable amount of sunshine - but then it changed, the final ten days was the 'weather' part of the month.
Those last ten days began with the wettest period of the month, peaking with a particularly wet day on the 22nd which caused some flooding. The Lyvennet over-topped in Maulds Meaburn and came close to entering properties on Riverside and in Appleby the River Eden inundated The Sands.
After this brief wet spell it turned cold with a slight wintry influence and the 30th saw Maulds Meaburn record the second lowest temperature (-5.1°c) in the North-West region, comfortably beaten by -6.9°c at Bewcastle (Cumbria) which was also the lowest in the UK during the month.
The majority of the month had a mobile westerly type interspersed with short-lived northerlies. Whilst the month ran continuously cooler than average throughout, the mean maximum temperature actually held up above average throughout, only falling below average after a cold end to the month.
During the month, there was one day of fog (22nd), one day with hail (23rd) and snow fell on three days (24-25th and 27th) - the 25th starting with a slight dusting of snow.
Locally, rainfall percentages were in the range of 80-90%, but once again Seathwaite bucked the trend and was slightly wetter than average. The 22nd was the wettest day across the county and whilst here at Maulds Meaburn it accounted for half of the month's total, at most sites it fell to around one quarter.
At the Met' Office site at Newton Rigg, 89.4 mm (89.3%) made it the driest November since 2014 and in a series back to 1900, November has been drier in 65 years and wetter in 52 years (1yr of missing data - but which would have recorded in excess of 150 mm). A mean temperature of 4.95°c is the warmest since 2015 and in a series back to 1953, 18 have been colder and 46 have been warmer.
Here at Maulds Meaburn, autumn 2017 was on the poor side of average. September was wet and cool with no day attaining 20°c. October saw average rainfall, but was very mild and hence why the temperature ended so close to average as otherwise it would have been both wet and cold.
At Newton Rigg rainfall totalled 284.4 mm and had a mean temperature of 9.15°c. In comparison to the 1981-2010 averages this represented 100.4 % of autumn rainfall and it was 0.05°c warmer than average.
This makes the autumn of 2017 the 48th wettest in a series back to 1900 (2 yrs of missing data) and with 35 having been colder, 26 warmer and 3 having the same mean temperature in a series back to 1953.
December was drier and marginally colder than average - one notable cold spell gave the lowest temperature since Christmas Day 2010.
The month was fairly mixed with a few milder, wetter periods, but also with two cold spells. Of those cold spells, the first (8-16th) became very cold with the 11th recording the lowest temperature since Christmas Day 2010 and then also the first 'Ice Day' since March 2013. Then a cold snap at the month's end had a slight wintry feel.
The number of air and ground frosts was above average and likewise the number of days on which snowfall was recorded, but the reality was that any snow was minimal and short lived and did not have any notable impacts.
Overall the month was fairly average, but those frosts and the snowfall did at least make it feel like a winter's month, but unfortunately the worst day of the month was reserved for the 25th which saw heavy rainfall throughout the county.
During the month, there was two days of fog (2nd + 29th), one day with hail (7th), snow fell on 11 days and was laying on the ground (to a depth of at least 1 cm) on 2 days (29th and 30th).
Locally, rainfall percentages showed no particular pattern, falling either side of average, but yet again Seathwaite recorded a total that was well in excess of the average. The month had two wet days, 6th and jointly 24-25th with Seathwaite recording 160.8 mm on the 24th.
At Newton Rigg, 89.4 mm (85.1%) made it the wettest December since 2015 and in a series back to 1900, December has been drier in 51 years and wetter in 64 years (2yrs of missing data). A mean temperature of 3.3°c is the coldest since 2012 and in a series back to 1951, 24 have been colder and 42 have been warmer.
The following is the monthly breakdown of the weather at Shap during 2017.
OTHER - Maulds Meaburn data:
A Mean Minimum of 5.51°c - Mean Maximum of 12.76°c
During 2017 snow lay on the ground* on 4 days and was seen to fall on 25 (inc' sleet) with hail falling on 6 days.
Fog* was recorded on 7 days with thunder heard on 4 days.
Mean cloud* cover was 79.1% with 156 days having a 100% cover* and 5 days being totally clear.
Mean air pressure* was 1013.2 Mb (exactly the local average) - Lowest pressure was 974.7 Mb (23rd Feb') and the highest was 1036.9 Mb (19th Jan').
Mean wind speed* was 7.35 Mph - the highest gust = 66 Mph (16th Oct') - the windiest day with a mean speed of 21.8 Mph was the 11th Jan'.
Gales (a 10 min' mean wind speed of 39 Mph) were recorded on just 1 day.
We had 63 air frosts (4 above average) - 113 ground frosts (5 below average) - with 18 days attaining 20°c+ (6 attaining 25°c) and 1 Ice day when the temperature remained below freezing all day.
The 30 cm soil temperature had a mean of 10.3°c with a low of 2.8°c (13-14th Dec') and a high of 17.7°c (22nd June).
The 100 cm soil temperature had a mean of 10.1°c with a low of 5.8°c (1st and 14-16th Feb') and a high of 14.5°c (28th July).
* Refers to 0900 GMT the hour of observations.
Met' office data is still provisional for August onwards.
THANKS:- There are several people whom I would like to thank for their help, support and assistance over the past year: For the supplying of data: to Susan Sandelands and Martin Wilson of the Hydrometry and Telemetry team at the Environment Agency (superbly efficient). And then to a my deputy observers who stand in for me when required, Alan and especially Sarah.
* 2017 TEMP' 9.14°c -- RAIN 1096.7 mm
* 2016 TEMP' 8.89°c -- RAIN 1072.1 mm
* 2015 TEMP' 8.75°c -- RAIN 1663.8 mm
* 2014 TEMP' 9.58°c -- RAIN 1343.8 mm
* 2013 TEMP' 8.49°c -- RAIN 1232.1 mm
* 2012 TEMP' 8.26°c -- RAIN 1415.9 mm
* 2011 TEMP' 9.17°c -- RAIN 1305.4 mm
* 2010 TEMP' 7.42°c -- RAIN 702.9 mm
* 2009 TEMP' 8.86°c -- RAIN 1264.5 mm
* 2008 TEMP' -- RAIN 1381.3 mm